Understanding Health Research, a tool for making sense of health studies: Confounders

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  • Format Websites
  • Language/s English
  • Target Audience Further education, Self-directed learning
  • EBM Stage 3 - Appraising evidence
  • Duration <5 mins
  • Difficulty Introductory

Key Concepts addressed


A confounder (or ‘confounding factor’) is something, other than the thing being studied, that could be causing the results seen in a study.

It can be very difficult to account for every possible confounder when doing research with people, but researchers must try to account for anything that could influence their results when planning their research and analysing their data. confounders have the potential to change the results of research because they can influence the outcomes that the researchers are measuring.

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